Plural Publishing produces leading academic, scientific and clinical publications in the fields of speech-language pathology, audiology, and otolaryngology.


Hearing in Children

Sixth Edition
Jerry L. Northern, Marion P. Downs
720 pages, Illustrated (B/W), Hardcover, 7 x 10"
Release Date:


In this completely updated sixth edition, Hearing in Children thoroughly examines the current knowledge of pediatric audiology, and provides a medical perspective on the identification, diagnosis, and management of hearing loss in children. This enduring text has been the chief pediatric hearing resource used worldwide by audiologists for nearly 40 years.

Key features to Hearing in Children, Sixth Edition include:

  • An expanded review of the medical aspects--early intervention, genetics, diseases and disorders, and treatments--of pediatric hearing loss as well as hearing and auditory disorders in infants, toddlers, and young children
  • Practical descriptions of age-specific testing protocols and hearing screening technologies, and early hearing loss detection and intervention procedures
  • Comprehensive coverage of amplification for children with hearing loss, including fitting and management issues in hearing aids, cochlear implants, and assistive listening devices
  • Valuable information on the role of family-centered services related to all aspects of childhood deafness
  • A revised appendix of hearing disorders that includes 90 syndromes and disorders associated with childhood deafness
  • Nearly 500 new and current references


  • Doody's (May 2018):
    "Named to Doody's Core Titles in the Health Sciences - Speech, Language & Hearing 2018 list."

  • Shannon Blevins Bramlette, Au.D, CCC-A, in the International Journal of Audiology (2016):
    "...Authored by experts in the area of pediatric audiology with significant contributions from Deborah Hayes of Children’s Hospital of Colorado, this is an excellent book that would be a must have for any pediatric audiologist. It allows the reader to easily grasp concepts, and excellent reference materials are presented throughout the book. The book would be an excellent purchase for any student in an audiology graduate program. I believe that the learner outcomes for the publication would prepare the student to apply the knowledge clinically. The foundations developed in the previous editions have been edited to reflect more current knowledge and technologies. The authors should be commended for this excellent textbook and their continued contributions to hearing in children."


  • Chapter 1: Hearing and Hearing Loss in Children
    • Hearing Loss in Children – A Hidden Disability
    • How We Hear
    • The Nature of Hearing Loss
    • Demographics of Childhood Hearing Loss
    • Acoustics of Speech
    • Team Management of Children with Hearing Impairment
    • Audiologists with Specialty Training in Pediatric Hearing Loss

  • Chapter 2: Early Development
    • Basic Principles of Genetic Inheritance
    • Inheritance of Genetic Disorders
    • Abnormalities Related to Gene/Environment Interaction
    • Prenatal Development
    • Fetal Development
    • Development of Ears, Face and Palate
    • The Nursery Environment
    • Disorders of the Infant Respiratory System
    • Disorders of the Cardiovascular System
    • Disorders of the Central Nervous System
    • Congenital Infections
    • Genetic Counseling

  • Chapter 3: Auditory and Speech-Language Development
    • Neuroplasticity
    • Prenatal Hearing
    • Neonatal Hearing Development
    • Development of Oral Communication
    • Questionnaires for Parents
    • Studies of Speech Development
    • Optimal Periods
    • Listening
    • Auditory Processing in Children

  • Chapter 4: Medical Aspects
    • Medical Conditions of the External Ear
    • Otitis Media
    • Medical Disorders and Sensorineural Hearing Loss
    • Childhood Infections Associated with Hearing Loss
    • Cleft Palate
    • Down Syndrome
    • Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
    • Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD)

  • Chapter 5: Early Intervention
    • Early Intervention Services
    • Implementation of Early Intervention
    • Federal Mandates
    • Cornerstones of Early Intervention
    • Optimal Early Intervention Strategies
    • Family-Centered Services
    • Breaking the News to Parents
    • The Audiologist’s Self-Understanding
    • Intervention Strategies for the Child with Otitis Media
    • Telepractice and Teleaudiology
    • Hearing Dogs

  • Chapter 6: Behavioral Hearing Tests
    • The Audiologist and the Child
    • The Case History
    • Reinforcement Theory
    • Visual Reinforcement Audiometry (VRA): 6 Months to 2 Years of Age
    • Conditioned Play Audiometry With Children Ages 2-4 Years
    • Pediatric Speech Audiometry
    • Speech Perception Testing
    • Hearing Testing in the Older Child (5 Years and Older)
    • Evaluating Hearing of Difficult-to-Test Children
    • Functional Hearing Loss in Children

  • Chapter 7: Physiologic Hearing Tests
    • Managing Toddlers for Physiologic Hearing Tests
    • Acoustic Immittance Measures
    • Clinical Applications of the Immittance Battery With Children
    • Otoacoustic Emissions
    • Evoked Auditory Responses
    • Auditory Brainstem Evoked Responses (ABR)
    • Auditory Middle-Latency Evoked Responses (MLR)
    • Late Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEPs)
    • Auditory Steady-State Responses (ASSR)
    • Electrocochleography
    • Sedation
    • Vestibular Evaluation in Children
    • Summary of Physiologic Auditory Testing

  • Chapter 8: Hearing Screening
    • Principles of Screening
    • Genetic Screening
    • History of Newborn Hearing Screening
    • Universal Newborn Hearing Screening
    • Hearing Screening: Birth Through 6 Months
    • Hearing Screening: Infants and Toddlers (7 Months to 3 Years)
    • Hearing Screening Preschool Children (3 to 5 Years)
    • Hearing Screening School-Age Children (5 to 18 Years)
    • Screening for Middle Ear Disorders
    • Hearing Screening of the Developmentally Delayed Child
    • Screening Follow-Up Issues

  • Chapter 9: Amplification
    • Pediatric Hearing Aid Fitting
    • The Hearing Aid
    • Hearing Aids for Children
    • The Pediatric Hearing Aid Fitting Process
    • Probe Microphone Measurements
    • Prescriptive Fitting Methods
    • Binaural Hearing Aids
    • Frequency Response
    • Hearing Aid Output
    • The Earmold and Sound Channel
    • Monitoring Children’s Hearing Aids
    • Pediatric Cochlear Implants

  • Chapter 10: Education
    • The Educational Audiologist
    • Individuals with Disabilities Educational Act (IDEA)
    • Educational Goals for the Child With Hearing Loss
    • Current Status of Education
    • Challenges in Teaching Deaf and Hearing-Impaired Students
    • Implementing the Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
    • Educational Methodologies
    • Mainstream Education
    • Classroom Acoustics
    • Personal FM Systems
    • Parent Education

Appendix A. Pediatric Hearing Disorders

Appendix B. Guidelines for Identification and Management of Infants and Young Children with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder

Author Index
Subject Index

About The Authors

Jerry L. Northern

Jerry L. Northern, PhD, is Professor Emeritus for the University of Colorado School of Medicine.

Marion P. Downs

Dr. Marion P. Downs (1914-2014) was a Distinguished Professor Emerita at the University of Colorado School of Medicine where she spent more than 35 years providing clinical services to benefit patients with hearing loss, devoting her professional life to the promotion of early identification of hearing loss in newborns, infants and young children. During her outstanding career at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Dr. Downs created, developed and evaluated techniques for testing hearing in children and for fitting them, some as young as a few weeks of age, with hearing aids. She was among the first to recognize the need for using hearing aids for babies with hearing loss as early as possible, to help nurture speech, language, and communication skills during their critical development years.

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