Plural Publishing produces leading academic, scientific and clinical publications in the fields of speech-language pathology, audiology, and otolaryngology.


Facial Paralysis
A Comprehensive Rehabilitative Approach

Edited by: Mark K. Wax
280 pages, Color Illustrations (4 Color), Hardcover, 7 x 10"
Release Date:
  • buy eBook from the App Store
  • buy eBook from Google Play


Facial Paralysis: A Comprehensive Rehabilitative Approach provides a thorough review of facial plastic surgery techniques utilized in various subspecialties. Through contributions from a range of experts - facial plastic surgeons to head and neck oncologic reconstructive surgeons - this text addresses ways to evaluate all aspects of facial nerve paralysis: diagnosis, individual etiology and management, surgical procedures, as well as preferred reconstructive modalities. Also included is a surgical atlas that illustrates the techniques used to repair or ameliorate the effects of the paralysis.

Spanning several surgical subspecialties, Facial Paralysis: A Comprehensive Rehabilitative Approach is a one-stop resource for any surgeon performing facial plastic surgery.


  • Liam M Flood, FRCS, FRCSI, Journal of Laryngology and Otology (November 2014):
    "I confess that I start most reviews of any textbook by just flicking through it and scanning the pictures. The quality of the images immediately impressed me here. Despite a multi-author input, these are consistently relevant, they have much novelty and they are reproduced to a very high standard. I keep going back to Fig 5.2 which shows a facial neuroma, before and after mastoid-approach excision. Nice photography here. There are many views of the nerve in various degrees of separation or grafting, in the parotid and, again, the clarity of the illustrations is remarkable. For once, we are largely spared those black boxes over the eyes which can ruin such textbooks....

    Every such book starts with the basic science, but even that shows novelty here. How many of us can associate the various facial reflexes with their respective brainstem pathways? Did you know that the facial nerve fibres occupy as much as 83% of the cross sectional area at the meatal foramen of the internal canal, but only 23% in the tympanic and 64% in the mastoid segments? The second chapter looks at various aetiologies, but gives a nice brief overview of electrophysiologic testing. Under complications of facial paralysis, we will all think about the cornea, but may overlook epiphora, nasal valve collapse and synkinesis....

    Now, the rest of the book is what makes for a unique piece of work. It is a surgical manual, covering every procedure imaginable, in restoration of the paralysed face. There are chapters on Nerve repair, on grafting, management of the upper and then lower eyelid, the lips, the nasal valve. A final (and really clever) additional chapter drifts off subject, into correction or avoidance of that soft tissue defect, the hollow so prevalent after parotidectomy. Fig 13.2 is described as showing “an acceptable” cosmetic result. Well, let’s say that the scar is just visible and most of us would be pleased with this outcome.

    There are several books currently in print on facial palsy. This is particularly good at showing the role of the cosmetic and reconstructive surgeon in restoration of function, or at least, cosmesis. An inspiring book and an excellent read."

  • Nicole Free, BS, BM, CCC-SLP, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Annuals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology (2015):
    "...This text will be of primary use for otolaryngologists and facial plastic surgeons, with valuable contributions from across the otolaryngology subspecialties, including neuro-otology, highlighting a multidisciplinary approach for these patients. The book may also serve as a resource for speech language pathologists and physical therapists that work in evaluation and management of these patients, with the initial focus on etiology, identification and rehabilitation of facial nerve paralysis and paresis. The book provides a concise summary of the content matter, with accessible format for easy referencing. While not an exhaustive text at 260 pages, the work would service as a useful training tool for otolaryngologists and a practical addition to academic department libraries."

  • Introduction
  • Acknowledgments
  • Contributors
  • Chapter 1: Facial Nerve Anatomy and Mastoid Surgery in the Management of Facial Nerve Disorders
         Frank M. Warren
  • Chapter 2: Facial Nerve Paresis and Paralysis: History, Etiology, and Testing
         Steven B. Cannady and Oren Friedman
  • Chapter 3: Complications of Facial Paralysis
         Mark K. Wax and Steven B. Cannady
  • Chapter 4: Medical Management of Facial Paralysis
         Jessica J. Peck and Mark K. Wax
  • Chapter 5: Management of the Facial Nerve
         Joshua D. Rosenberg and Eric M. Genden
  • Chapter 6: Nerve Substitutions in Facial Reconstruction
         Cheryl C. Nocon and Alexander Langerman
  • Chapter 7: Management of the Paralyzed Brow
         Fred Fedok, Parker Velargo, Frank Garritano, and Irina Chaikhoutdinov
  • Chapter 8: Management of the Upper Eyelid Complex
         Erika McCarty Walsh and Eben L. Rosenthal
  • Chapter 9: Management of The Lower Eyelid
         Amy L. Pittman and John D. Ng
  • Chapter 10: Management of the Nasal Valve
          Mark K. Wax and Jessica J. Peck
  • Chapter 11: Management of the Midface and Lips in the Paralyzed Face
          Kristine A. Smith, Melynda Barnes, and Tom D. Wang
  • Chapter 12: Facial Reanimation with Free Tissue Transfer
          Satyen Undavia and Babak Azizzadeh
  • Chapter 13: Management of the Soft Tissue Defect Following Parotidectomy
          Christine G. Gourin and Mark K. Wax
  • Index

About The Editor

Mark K. Wax

Mark K. Wax, MD, is a professor in the departments of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Oral-Maxillo Facial Surgery at Oregon Health and Sciences University. He is also the residency program director and the director of the microvascular and reconstructive surgery fellowship. Dr. Wax is a past president of the American Head and Neck Society (AHNS) and has been instrumental in the founding of a reconstructive committee for AHNS. As the co-coordinator for education for the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, he was responsible for the educational activities of the largest otolaryngology society in the United States. For more than a decade, Dr. Wax has had an interest in reconstructive surgery. He has more than 200 publications in the field and has been invited to present lectures on reconstruction in many different venues.