Plural Publishing produces leading academic, scientific and clinical publications in the fields of speech-language pathology, audiology, and otolaryngology.


A Case Study from Fluency

Former Title: Ethics: A Case Study
Robert Goldfarb
227 pages, Illustrated (B/W), Softcover, 6 x 9"
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  • Unique - undergraduate and graduate students in communication sciences and disorders do not currently have a resource for ethics other than ASHA's Code of Ethics. The present proposal uses the case study format (the Tudor study) to explore ethics of research in stuttering circa 1939 as well as more general applications to the field.
  • Controversial - the Tudor Study has been compared to Nazi medical experimentation and maltreatment of orphan children
  • Dispassionate - unravels the sensationalist media coverage of the Study to take a scientific and reasoned review and examination of the ethical outcomes presented

Recent media attention to a 1939 master's thesis that has become known as the Tudor study prompted Dr. Goldfarb and others to revisit the ethical consideration of this study as a means of exploring ethical issues in clinical and research practices today.

Over sixty years ago, under the supervision of Wendell Johnson (one of the founders of the science of speech-language pathology), graduate student Mary Tudor conducted a study to examine the effect of verbal labeling on the frequency of disfluency in both children who stuttered and children who were fluent. The subjects came from an orphanage in Davenport, Iowa. Johnson’s and Tudor’s findings—that they were allegedly able to induce stuttering in normally fluent children—supported their hypothesis, but have also raised serious ethical concerns.

In this book, Dr. Goldfarb has gathered the leading authorities in stuttering and, together, they investigate the Tudor study and, more broadly, ethics in scientific research, diagnosis, and treatment in the field of communication sciences.

Students and clinicians alike will find the accounts within this book engaging, stimulating, and ultimately relevant.


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  • Contributors
  • Introduction
  • The Stuttering Doctor’s “Monster Study”.
    Gretchen Reynolds
  • Diagnosis.
    Robert Goldfarb
  • Research in Stuttering at the University of Iowa Circa 1939.
    Oliver Bloodstein
  • The Tudor Study and Wendell Johnson.
    Ehud Yairi
  • Teaching Research Ethics in Communication Disorders Programs.
    Barbara Schmidt, Elizabeth Galletta and Loraine K Obler
  • Would Today’s IRB Approve the Tudor Study? Ethical Considerations in Conducting Research Involving Children with Communication Disorders.
    Richard G Schwartz
  • Some Physiological Studies on Stuttering.
    Katherine S Harris
  • An Atheoretical Discipline.
    Robert Goldfarb
  • Retroactive Ethical Judgments and Human Subjects Research: The 1939 Tudor Study in Context.
    Nicholas Johnson
  • Appendix: The ASHA Code of Ethics
  • Index

About The Author

Robert Goldfarb

Robert Goldfarb, PhD, Fellow, ASHA, is Professor (with the Professor Recognition Award) and Program Director of Communication Sciences and Disorders at Adelphi University and Emeritus Professor of Speech and Hearing Sciences at Lehman College and The Graduate Center, CUNY, where he was also Executive Officer. He was a Fulbright Specialist in Applied Linguistics/TEFL in Bogota, Colombia in 2013. He has published in the areas of adult aphasia, the language of dementia, and the language of schizophrenia, and is also co-author of two tests: The Stocker Probe for Fluency and Language (1995) and Time-Altered Word Association Tests (TAWAT, 2013). He edited and contributed chapters to Ethics: A Case Study From Fluency (2006) and Translational Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology (2012), and is co-author of Techniques for Aphasia Rehabilitation Generating Effective Treatment (TARGET, 1995), Professional Writing in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology (2009), Professional Writing in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology Workbook (2011), and Language and Motor Speech Disorders in Adults, 3rd ed. (2013).